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"[159], Northup, items 507, 515, 517, 533, 534, 542, 560, 571, Northup, items 635, 673, 684, 705, 727a, 727c, 728a, 735e, Weinbrott, Howard D., "Translation and parody: towards the genealogy of the Augustan imitation" in, Donald Keane, "The first Japanese translations of European literature” in. It was printed many times and in a variety of formats, translated into many languages, and praised by critics even after Gray's other poetry had fallen out of favour. [86] This was an example of how later parodies shifted their critical aim, in this case "explicitly calling attention to the formal and thematic ties which connected the 18th century work with its 20th century derivation" in Edgar Lee Masters' work. Some village Hampden, that, with dauntless breast, Gray’s version of an elegy is slightly different—he writes about the inevitability and hollowness of death in general, instead of mourning one person. As the poem ends, the speaker begins to deal with death in a direct manner as he discusses how humans desire to be remembered. The only other letter to discuss the poem was one sent to Wharton on 11 September 1746, which alludes to the poem being worked on. Constable's charcoal and wash study of the "ivy-mantled tower" in stanza 3 is held by the Victoria and Albert Museum,[108] as is his watercolour study of Stoke Poges church,[109] while the watercolour for stanza 5, in which the narrator leans on a gravestone to survey the cemetery, is held at the British Museum (see below). And thou who, mindful of th' unhonour'd dead     And all the air a solemn stillness holds, In 1995, Lorna Clymer argued, "The dizzying series of displacements and substitutions of subjects, always considered a crux in Thomas Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" (1751), results from a complex manipulation of epitaphic rhetoric. Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share. [103][104] But the work of two leading artists is particularly noteworthy. "[16] Mason's argument was a guess, but he argued that one of Gray's poems from the Eton Manuscript, a copy of Gray's handwritten poems owned by Eton College, was a 22-stanza rough draft of the Elegy called "Stanza's Wrote in a Country Church-Yard". His listless length at noontide would he stretch. Approach and read (for thou canst read) the lay, Grav'd on the stone beneath yon aged thorn. Gray's is natural, whereas Milton's is more artificially designed. Its phrasing is both elegant and memorable, as is evident from the incorporation of much of it into the living language. [24] But as compared to a poem recording personal loss such as John Milton's "Lycidas", it lacks many of the ornamental aspects found in that poem. Poets. [158] While analyzing the use of "death" in 18th-century poetry, David Morris, in 2001, declared the poem as "a monument in this ongoing transformation of death" and that "the poem in its quiet portraits of rural life succeeds in drawing the forgotten dead back into the community of the living. Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.     The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea, Par MM. By Thomas Gray. "[51], The poem ends with the narrator turning towards his own fate, accepting his life and accomplishments. Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard. "[133] He continued: "the Elegy may usefully remind us that boldness and originality are not necessities for great poetry. By night and lonely contemplation led The later ending also explores the narrator's own death, whereas the earlier version serves as a Christian consolation regarding death. This pleasing anxious being e'er resign'd. [34], As the poem continues, the speaker begins to focus less on the countryside and more on his immediate surroundings. Although universal in its statements on life and death, the poem was grounded in Gray's feelings about his own life, and served as an epitaph for himself.     A grateful earnest of eternal peace. Gray remarked to Anstey, “’That leaves the world to darkness and to me’ is good English, but has not the turn of a Latin phrase, and therefore, I believe, you were in the right to drop it.” In fact, all that Anstey had dropped was reproducing an example of zeugma with a respectable Classical history, but only in favour of replicating the same understated introduction of the narrator into the scene: et solus sub nocte relinqor (and I alone am left under the night). 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