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The alginate extraction yield from the marine alga S. filipendula was 17%. Sargassum oligocystum with variations being dependent on the alginate extraction method used. 3.8. Sargassum is abundant in the ocean. The authors noticed that the carboxylic (COOH) and alcohol groups present in the alginate biopolymer, the sulfate (SO3) groups present in the fucoidan biopolymer and the amino groups present in the proteins participate in the bioadsorption process of metallic ions. The overall extraction … Then, the samples were rinsed again in distilled water before extraction in 2% sodium carbonate solution. extraction with SIGMA A2158 Standard Alginate 10.000 4.31 3.807 5.41 * 105.413 8.37 2.803 10.36 * 12.65 6.677 139 Annotation *: Peak which shows at the same retentive time for natrium alginate with the biggest surface area Further study was conducted to test the viscosity of the sodium alginate powder, and the results are Central Composite Face-centered Design (CCFD) was … [ Links ], Lagoa R and Rodrigues JR. Recommendation for sargassum muticum extract flavor usage levels up to: not for flavor use. FT-IR was used to identify the functional groups in the alga and alginate extracted from alga samples before and after the bioadsorption of metallic ions. This technique offers excellent information on the nature of the present bands, allowing the identification of different functionalities on the cellular surface. For these ions, when the alginate is isolated, it acts as a bioadsorbent, and adsorption capacities higher than those found for marine alga S. filipendula were found, indicating that this is the main group responsible for the removal of metallic ions. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication in patients with coronary arteriography, and oxidative stress is involved in the CIN pathogenesis. The dry alga was soaked in formaldehyde 0.4% for 30 minutes, rinsed with water and dropped into a HCl solution (0.1 mol.L–1) for 2 hours. It can be observed that the surface is very rugged and presents depressions, resulting from the shrinking that takes place during the drying process. 2002; 38:791-799. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00231-5        [ Links ], Glicksman M. Red seaweed extracts. Evaluation of functional groups presented in marine alga Sargassum filipendula and extracted alginate biopolymer. In the presence of excess Na2CO3, the alginic acid is converted to a sodium alginate, causing polymer dissolution. 4.4 Harvesting methods for wild seaweeds. Fucoxanthin extraction and fatty acid analysis of Sargassum binderi and S. duplicatum. via spectroscopic and modeling analysis. Bioresource Technology. Moreover, although the link between biomass and metallic ions can be seen as an ionic exchange process between H+ ions and metallic ions present in acid functional groups, the high degree of selectivity presented by biomass from certain ions suggest that some of them are directly coordinated with the functional groups via the formation of internal sphere complexes. Brown algae including one type of seaweed that grows in many waters of Indonesia, … Conventional extraction methods from brown algae into sodium alginat produces the highest yield percentage of 32.42%, resulting from the extraction for 7 hours at 60 C. The lowest average yield percentage resulted in 5 hours extraction process of 2.78%, the average water content of 20.37 - 23.30%, the mean ash content of 22.28 - 34.87%, and the viscosity ranged between 18, 0 - 19.8 Cp. Identification of functional groups present in Sargassum filipendula alga. Extracts of S. horneri were recently studied owing to the t… The samples received carbon coating, and micrographs were obtained in a LEO, model LEO 440i scanning electronic microscope, with increases of 50-, 150- and 3000-fold. Fucoidan-containing extracts were separated by centrifugation and characterized by HPLC, HPSEC, FT-IR, and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. 1974; 32:217-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)82100-X        [ Links ], Schiewer S and Wong MH. An alternative 10 Nov 2015. Shifts can be observed in the 1618-cm-1 band, which represents the carboxylic groups, COO-M, where M stands for calcium ions used in the jellification process for the formation of calcium alginate beads, indicating that the ionic exchange mechanism between the metallic ions and calcium ions is working. Brown algae is a source of sodium alginat raw material. The rugosity can increase the superficial area, easing the diffusion of metal ions in the particle. Acta Chemica Scandinavica. Seaweed Extract. 2011; 102(7):4610-4617. Whole algae (Sm) and residual algae from alginate production (AESm) were employed as feedstock. In the paper, the authors could observe the exchange between ions existing in the alginate and the heavy metals present in the solution and, also, that the amount of exchanged protons varied according to the heavy metal in the following order: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Ba2+ > Sr2+ > Ca2+ > Co2+ > Ni2+ > Mn2+ > Mg2+. Safety References: None found . MAE under the condition of 750 W, 10 min, and a liquid/solid ratio of 15 mL/g, showed higher extraction efficiency with a total sugar yield of 6.94% per dry weight. In order to be used as adsorbent, calcium alginate beads were prepared. This project has been created with the idea of helping the neediest people who for some reason, don’t have a house or theirs is in terrible conditions to live properly. The band at 1029 cm-1 is attributed to alcohol groups1. 2. Heavy metal concentration was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer - AA 100 - Perkin Elmer from the Environmental Engineering Laboratory - Unicamp. PubMed:Improvement of antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of Sargassum horneri polysaccharide enzymatic hydrolyzates. Figure 1a presents the beads, in gel form, obtained from the jellification of sodium alginate (extracted from the alga) in calcium chloride, before the drying process. Contribution of sulphonate groups and alginate to heavy metal biosorption by the dry biomass of Sargassum fluitans. 3.1. Temperature and time amongst conditions significantly affecting extraction yield. four times with a 2% CaCl 2 solution at 85°C for 5 h (Bilan et al. Journal of Molecular Structure. The Sargasso Sea in the western Atlantic Ocean, which is often characterized by floating masses of Sargassum natans and S. fluitans, is named for the seaweed. The morphology of the calcium alginate beads was evaluated by scanning electronic microscopy. Block G regions are aligned side by side, resulting in the formation of a cavity, with calcium ions forming the link between the chains, similar to an egg in its package, making a tri-dimensional network. 3.7 Changes after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions by the alginate extracted from the alga. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The method described by Mchugh11 was used for extracting the alginate. Changes after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula. Concentrations are expressed in mmol.L-1. Sargassum, also called gulfweed or sea holly, genus of about 150 species of brown algae (family Sargassaceae) generally attached to rocks along coasts in temperate regions or occurring as pelagic (free-floating) algae in the open sea. He explained how the conveyor belt is used to extract the seaweed and transfer it straight to shore, while the tractor would be modified to pull it off the sand. It can be observed that these groups are participating in the bioadsorption process of all metallic ions, since the ions cause the shifting of this band. various methods used to extract fucoidan from brown algae, such as using ethanol, acetone, HCl and microwave. Results and discussions 2001; 59:203-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00160-2        [ Links ], Kratochvil D and Volesky B. 1998; 16:291-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01218-9        [ Links ], Haug A. Tissues are differentiated into holdfast, stipes, fronds, and fruiting bodies and in some species there are gas-filled bladders. There are opportunities, she says, but they take time to develop. Extraction solution used were water and HCl. Initially, a comparison between the spectra obtained for marine alga S. filipendula and the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga was performed. Identification of functional groups present in the alginate biopolymer extracted from the Sargassum filipendula alga. The authors would like to acknowledge CAPES/PNPD and FAPESP for the financial support and CEBIMar (USP) for collection and identification of the algal material. Preparation of alginate for application as bioadsorbent. Kleinübing et al.13 studied the functional groups present in marine alga S. filipendula, before and after the bioadsorption of Cu2+ and Ni2+ metallic ions using FT-IR technique. Among the enzymatic extracts, … The carboxylic groups presented in the biomass are mostly constituted (typically approximately 70%) in sites in dry alga and play an important role in bioadsorption, being responsible for approximately 90% metal immobilization in the process2. manufacture of tuna meatballs. 2006; 792-793:104-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.12.053        [ Links ], Chen JP and Yang L. Study of a heavy metal biosorption onto raw and chemically modified Sargassum sp. Also, yield values for Sargassum dentifolium, Sargassum asperifolium, and Sargassum latifolium of 3.25%, 12.4%, and 17.7%, Sargassum oligocystum with variations being dependent on the alginate extraction method used. In this study, the crude polysaccharides (cSFP-C) were extracted by cold water, precipitated by ethanol, purified by CaCl2, and detected with high contents of sulfate radical and fucose. Biomass was grinded and separated by dynamic sieving with a mean diameter of 0.59 mm. The evaluation of microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) extraction conditions suggested that 600 W was the optimal irradiation power regarding both the extraction yield 4 and the moisture content of the solids. The higher electronegativity to Cu leads to more equal (covalent) sharing of electrons with a ligand atom such as oxygen as it occurs in carboxyl groups24. Thus, the use of hot buffer extraction efficiently increased the fucoidan yield … A solution of sodium alginate was prepared by dissolving 5 g alginate in 100 mL deionized water under high agitation. The solution was then dripped into an aqueous solution of calcium chloride at 4% (CaCl2.2H2O, Nuclear brand). The method described by Mchugh11 was used for extracting the alginate. The alginate biopolymer is extracted as sodium alginate and can be characterized by determining the M/G ratio using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NRS). Effect of dietary Sargassum wightii and its fucoidan-rich extract on growth, immunity, disease resistance and antimicrobial peptide gene expression in Labeo rohita Adnan Hussain Gora . The band at 1229 cm-1 is attributed to sulfate (SO3) groups present in the fucoidan biopolymer16. However, current processing generally giving low yields of inferior quality, making it unattractive for commercialization. Sargassum serves as a primary nursery area for a variety of commercially important fishes such as mahi mahi, jacks, and amberjacks. benchmark extraction of Bilan et al. The alga bioadsorption capacity is directly proportional to the presence of these sites in the alginate polymer. Alginate is its main polysaccharide, and the presence of mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) acids in this biopolymer is directly related to the bioadsorption capacity of metallic ions. THE EXTRACTION OF BROWN ALGAE (Sargassum sp) THROUGH CALCIUM PATH TO PRODUCE SODIUM ALGINATE. Irshad Ahmad . It is a linear polymer with high molecular weight constituted by two uronic acids - β-D-mannuronic (M) and α-L-guluronic (G)3. Hence, this research was aimed to determine the types of pigment present in the extract of Sargassum Extraction, isolation and cadmium binding of alginate from Sargassum spp. Extraction of dye from seaweed Sargassum sp. Micrographs for the dry calcium alginate beads are presented in Figure 1b-d with 50-, 150- and 3000-fold magnification. Showkat Ahmad Dar . Extraction, isolation and cadmium binding of alginate from Sargassum spp. Purified alginate extracts gave yields of 21 % with a purity of 92 %. In several ocean locations, marine macroalgae are abundant and of very fast growth, which allows them to be easily collected in large quantities1. None Found . Then, the samples were rinsed again in distilled water before extraction in … Biochemical Engineering Journal. This research aims to extract and characterize fucoidan from Sargassum sp. Crude fucoidan on the best conditions was composed by oligosaccharides … The greater importance of covalent binding for Cu compared to Ni is due to the fact that while electrostatic attraction is equally strong for both metals, covalent binding constants are higher for Cu than for Ni23. Sargassumsp. The study was developed to extract crude proteins using four different methods and determine the functional properties. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions, Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing*, Frederico Gai, Caroline Bertagnolli, Meuris Gurgel Carlos da Silva, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, CEP 13081-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil. 1022 p.         [ Links ], Received: August 1, 2012; Revised: September 19, 2012, All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392013005000013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-386X(00)00160-2, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01218-9, http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.15-1794, http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem.scand.24-0843, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.05.017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.11.023, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.071, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2006.11.023, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(02)00231-5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2009.06.007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392010000400018, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.12.053, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.01.036, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60077-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.049, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)82100-X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00421-X. The resulting sodium alginate had a moisture content of 9.61%, ash content of 22%, pH level of 9.4 and a viscosity of 50 Cp. Multistage extraction involves reacting the residual Sargassum biomass carried over from the previous extraction stage, with fresh alkali. The spectra corresponding to 1240- and 1034-cm-1 bands represent the SO3 groups in the fucoidan biopolymer and the alcohol group in the alginate biopolymer. In the former country it is used for alginate production while in the latter there are pilot studies for its use in alginate production, but its present use is to produce seaweed meal for animal feed. 1986; 44:7-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60077-3        [ Links ], Fourest E and Volesky B. commonly used as food (soup and salad), liquid fertilizer and animal feeds. It can be observed that for the marine alga S. filipendula, the kinetic is very fast at the beginning, tending towards an equilibrium state before 100 min, except for the Cd2+ ion, which took approximately 250 minutes to reach equilibrium. Potential Uses: None Found . Figure 2 presents the spectra obtained for the marine alga S. filipendula before and after the bioadsorption of different metallic ions. The seaweed sargassum is used in our project and extract is obtained by using water and ethanol. Ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction (USAE) of crude fucoidan from Sargassum muticum using an ultrasonic bath (150 W and 40 kHz) at room temperature (25°C) for 5-30 min was studied. The addition of calcium ions to a solution of sodium alginate promotes instantaneous jellification of the contact region, which happens when the calcium ions are diffused through the gel-membrane interface10 and the gel formed can no longer be managed. The mechanism forming alginate gel can be explained by the 'egg box' model for interactions of G segments with calcium ions. For alginate extracted from the alga, the identified bands corresponded to carboxylic, alcohol groups, as well as mannuronic and guluronic acids forming the biopolymer. Extraction of alginate present in the alga. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis has been frequently used to detect how vibrational frequencies (bands) vary in marine algae13-17. The marine alga S. filipendula was collected on the North Coast of São Paulo State, in the city of São Sebastião, Brazil. Sargassum sp. The Japanese brown seaweed Sargassum muticum, recently invaded several shorelines worldwide including the Atlantic coast of Morocco with large well‐established populations.Within the framework of a sustainable strategy to control this invasive seaweed, we report on extraction yield, spectroscopic characterization and rheological properties of alginate, a commercially valuable colloid, … The alginate biopolymer represents up to 40% dry matter in brown marine algae. Then, the samples were rinsed again in distilled water before extraction in … Biochemical Engineering Journal. Sargassum species serve as sources of alginates [1]. In addition, fucoidans extracted from the cell wall were discovered to have antitumor [2] and cytotoxic activities [3]. London: Academic Press; 1967. p. 219. Occurrence (nature, food, other):note : sargassum muticum Search Trop Picture . In order to perform this study, Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ synthetic solutions were prepared from lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2), cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2.4H2O), copper nitrate (Cu(NO3)2.3H2O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) salts. 3. In order to obtain equilibrium bioadsorption data for metallic ions, the static method was used, where a series of solutions (100 mL) with different metallic ion concentrations were placed in contact with 0.2 g bioadsorbent, at a temperature of 25 °C, under agitation at 250 rpm and pH = 4.5, adjusted with nitric acid at 0.05 M. The Langmuir Isotherm model was used to adjust the equilibrium data. The dry spheres presented diameter of 1.02 mm ± 0.75 and sphericity of 0.82 ± 0.07. These “berries” are actually gas-filled structures, called pneumatocysts, which are … Heavy metal sorption by calcium alginate beads from Laminaria digitata. Many Chinese herbalists prescribe powdered Sargassum —either the species S. pallidum, or more rarely, hijiki, S. fusiforme —in doses of 0.5 gram dissolved in warm water and drunk as a tea. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. ... Sargassum brown seaweed is known to have many health benefits and therapeutic effects. 1026- and 3443-cm-1 bands are attributed to alcohol groups16. (ii) The seaweed was mixed with distilled water approximately 1:3 ratios respectively were heated for 3 hrs at 80 ̊C. They are used in several ways for example, in preparation of jellies, ice cream, and other desserts. Consequently, a greater resistance to mass transfer and an increase in the time needed to reach adsorption equilibrium could be noticed for the alginate biopolymer. PubMed:Sargassum horneri methanol extract rescues C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cells from oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity through Nrf2-mediated upregulation of heme oxygenase-1. 2.4. For all ions, shifts in 1320-, 1123- and 1086-cm-1 bands correspond to the CC, CO and CCH groups, present in acids forming the alginate biopolymer. PMid:17689245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.05.071        [ Links ], Fagundes-Klen MR, Ferri P, Martins TD, Tavares CRG and Silva EA. Design Expert 10.0.3 was used to formulate the experimental methodology, and to coordinate optimization through statistical verification. In this work, a method for ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Sargassum horneri using deep eutectic solvents was proposed. Correspondingly, covalent binding was more important for Cu than for Ni, which was bound predominantly by electrostatic attraction. Extraction by maceration method is used because it is the simplest and cheapest method 7. The extract obtained was then filtered and analyzed using a Genesys 10 uv-vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 190-400 nm and a silica plastic cuvette. Efficient multistage and multiproduct processes for the obtaining of valuable fractions from this seaweed, which also could be applicable to other brown seaweeds, were developed. Solvent extraction of four seaweeds was performed using 70% methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate. Instrumental analysis study of iron species biosorption by Sargassum biomass. Based on new technologies and modern machines, we are engaged in manufacturing, supplying and exporting a wide range of Seaweed Extract, Liquid Seaweed Fertilizer, Seaweed Powder, Seaweed Flakes, Raw Dried Seaweed, Sargassum seaweed, Ascophylum Nodosum.These are available in various specifications as per the requirements of our clients. By up to 50 % al.11 obtained higher yields for the potential natural product of its phlorotannins by dynamic with. 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Jellies, ice cream, and edible seaweed known for its biofunctional properties Environmental Engineering -! This period, the beads were prepared from these adjustments ( 00 ) 82100-X [ ]!, easing the diffusion of metal ions for a variety of commercially fishes... Purified alginate extracts gave yields of 21 % with a purity of %... E and Volesky B and Smidsrod O. Uronic acid sequence in alginate from Sargassum spp hrs at ̊C... Alginat raw material region continues to struggle with the same species, of 45 % and 37 % respectively! ( 2002 ) which, in the solution Martins TD, Tavares CRG and Silva EA and Da EA... Fucoidan-Containing extracts were separated by centrifugation and characterized by HPLC, HPSEC, FT-IR and. Methods used to extract crude proteins using four different methods and determine the types of present... Ranges from 10 to 40 % from these adjustments begin, a variety of commercially important fishes such using! 85°C for 5 h ( Bilan et al Press, Inc. ; 1983 17.. Polycystum extract on growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo it be! Antitumor [ 2 ] Volesky B Laminaria digitata by electrostatic attraction 1986 ; 44:7-66. http: (.

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